Four major irritants will hinder India from becoming a modern developed state. The first roadblock is the poverty and huge galloping population of 1.27 billion and to provide jobs, houses and social inputs like health and education to the teeming millions. The second roadblock is the insurgencies or liberation movements. The third obstacle is the territorial disputes with neighboring countries and the fourth is the Hindu Nationalism and treatment of the minorities.
Prime minister Modi with laudable record of developing the State of Gujrat as the chief minister may stumble in fruitfully addressing these grave issues. The steps such as banning of big currency notes and issuance of passports to those citizens who make latrines in their houses are not the lasting or worthwhile recipes to take off the robe of a third world country and join the rank of modern states such as Europeans.
With the grinding poverty and rather slow expanding industrial and manufacturing sectors and a saturation point reaching in agricultural produce, India would face an explosion that would be fatal to its economy. After all, when there is a wide gap and incompatibility between the resources and the countless mouths to feed, the outcome is certainly going to be dismal.
If expatriate Indians stop sending their remittances, which make a sizeable bulk of Indian foreign exchange, India might not be able to accumulate even this much of foreign exchange that it presently possesses.
It would be instructive to remember that if the powerful Soviet Socialist Empire can fall apart, how India can save itself from such an eventuality if she does not take far reaching remedial decisions. One is to give self-determination or self-rule or complete freedom to the ethnic populations demanding independence or self-determination. It will have to sincerely embark upon a friendly relationship with Pakistan and other regional countries.
The third factor is the Hindu nationalism which brooks no competitors in the realm of religion or faith. in 2002 the world had seen what happened to the Muslims in the state of Gujarat. In those bloody riots 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed. Independent sources put the death toll at over 2000. Approximately 150,000 people were driven to refugee camps. Numerous women and children were among the victims; the violence included mass rapes and mutilations of women.
The other is the caste system that breeds hatred and divisions and undermines the unity and is out of sync with the norms of equality and freedom being the hallmarks of modern societies. Despite Bollywood galore, the inhuman caste system, and imaginary mythologies would remain stumbling blocks in making India a modern state.