Friday, July 13, 2018

Imran Khan Remains Untouchable and Immune

July 12, 2018

By Saeed Qureshi

By all indications, it is becoming evident that Imran Khan, the Chairman of the Pakistan Tehrik-e- Insaf (PTI)would have the singular exception and distinction not to be touched or troubled by the judiciary and coercive apparatus of either armed forces or the civilian set-up. The pre-elections (to be held on July 25 instant) campaigning and electioneering have been interjected and waylaid by the courts in case of PMNL, PWP and even PPP. The PTI leaders including Chairman Imran Khan are free to canvass and castigate their rivals to their hearts’ fill. 

Ever-since the formation of his own political party, Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) in 1996, Imran Khan’s posture in the political arena of Pakistan has been condemnatory, abusive and aggressive. One can recall the Dharnas (sits in Islamabad) and barging into the PTV headquarters in Islamabad and various government offices by the charged workers of PTI, Imran Khan never looked back and kept advancing like a cavalier with a sword of invectives and abuses all along.

His onslaught has been lethal and personally accusative against the heads of the political parties with particular focus on Nawaz Sharif and his family members. The politics and agitation through “Dharnas” were later replaced with more sober style in which he would paint the founders and heads of the political parties as embodiment of all the vices and usurpers of the national wealth and who kept Pakistan poor and financially backward.

Initially Mr. Khan lacked the skill of public oration. Yet of late, he can be rated as one of the most aggressive speakers moving his listeners and audiences. His audience are mostly the young generation of Pakistan and are the hallmark and backbone of his political strength and the high level political popularity and hullabaloo.

Since the formation of the fourth PMNL government in 2013, Imran Khan can be rated as one of the most aggressive, ferocious and venomous political opponents of Mian Nawaz Sharif, his clan and cohorts. One may gauge that in the downfall of Nawaz Sharif and his disqualification as the prime minister of Pakistan and subsequent humiliations including judicial activism, can be partly or wholly attributed to the unstinted and diabolic onslaughts of Imran Khan.

The epitaphs, slangs and terms, that he has been using against Nawaz Sharif, can be termed as quite degrading and rather abusive. He seems to be the master of ridicule, jest and condemnation for his political contenders. But such most sleazy name name-calling and accusations have been reserved for Nawaz Sharif, his party associates and the family members.  

On the other side of the political spectrum of Pakistan, several legal cases of ill-gotten money and enhancement of wealth by dubious and questionable means is the most outstanding weapon of Mr. Khan against both Nawaz Sharif, Zardari, Maulana Fazal-Ur-Rahman and other targets.

Imran Khan himself came under the accusations of moral turpitude by a few females. Reham Khan, one of his former wives alleged that he was leading an immoral life with unethical sexual propensity on top. Reham Khan beside Gulalai, publicly accused him as a kind of sexual brute and devoid of basic etiquettes in pursuit of his sexual urges. She has written a book (published today and available) that has negatively impacted against Imran Khan.  

However, it cannot make a ruinous dent into his popularity level that he enjoys with his followers and sympathizers. Even the religious right, preachers and moralists who jump to condemnations and heap divine curse on immorality and immoral people are low lying and evasive.  

On the contrary his followers and supporters mostly, young population (both male and female) believe that he was the only political leader and icon who possesses the guts and character to rid Pakistan and its people of a culture of financial corruption, bad governance, poverty, and institutional breakdown.

It is a blatant question that stares in our faces that why PTI couldn’t produce miracles or overall uplift in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province where it has its government since May 31, 2013 with Pervez Khattak as the chief minister. If PTI didn’t do well in public welfare, civic galore, infrastructure, roads, judicial system, education and societal peace, then how can it bridle, overcome and eliminate countless bottlenecks that keep the state of Pakistan dysfunctional, its people poor, backward and caught up in a gridlock of socio- civic, economic, institutional, educational problems, as well as provincial disparity.

The clich├ęs of Imran Khan are spicy for the people but degrading for the political contenders. No inquiry for his asserts or moral deviations have been taken up by the judiciary or filed by a political or social or public leader in the courts. The soumoto actions by the judiciary, JIT and NAB and the superior courts are for other politicians and not for Imran Khan. However, those leaders who have become the target of his sinister accusation, contemptuous and mocking portrayal, could have approached the courts and pursued legal actions against him as well for possessing a property and wealth of almost 15 million dollars ( Wikipedia)  It shows that these leaders don’t want to provoke him further for a more ferocious and degrading retaliation from him.

For instance, he demonstrated in his latest unsurpassed foul mouthing skill by saying that how a dacoit (Nawaz Sharif) can seek warm welcome. He called Nawaz Sharif a donkey and those Pakistanis and his party workers going at the airport for their leader’s reception as a whole lot of donkeys. It is a blatant vulgarity that cannot be condoned or justified by any stretch of imagination.

NOW IT IS A. A. ZARADRI AND HIS SISTER FRYAL TALPUR!

By Saeed Qureshi
Of late, the Supreme Court of Pakistan has directed the Interior Ministry to place names of Asif Ali Zardari, his sister Faryal Talpur, other seven account holders and 13 beneficiaries on the Exit Control List. The charges against them are that they all are involved in transferring Rs35 billions to 29 fake bank accounts.  
The verdict with dire sentences with regard to the mega financial corruption cases instituted by NAB against the president of the political party PMNL as well as the former prime minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif, his daughter and son-in-law Captain Muhammad Safdar have already been announced.
The lone judges of Accountability Court-I Muhammad Bashir, under directive from supreme court, awarded 11-years rigorous imprisonment to Nawaz with £8 million fine. His daughter Maryam Nawaz has been awarded eight-year imprisonment with £2 million fine. Nawaz Sharif’s son-in-law Captain (Retd) Muhammad Safdar was handed down two-year rigorous imprisonment.
All these rigorous jail terms have been awarded to them on manipulation of funds and stacking those overseas. The case is known “Avenfield Apartments Corruption Reference” and has been lingering on for quite some time. However, Nawaz Sharif, Maryam Nawaz and Captain Safdar have the legal option to file their appeals against this judgment in the high court. They have decided to challenge the Avenfield verdict against them in the Islamabad High Court on Monday.
The Court also disqualified all the three accused from holding any public office for 10 years or availing themselves of bank loans. Declaring their two sons Hussain Nawaz and Hassan Nawaz, absconders the judge declared issuance of Non-bailable perpetual warrants for their arrest. Former prime minister Nawaz Sharif and his daughter Maryam Nawaz who are in London would be arrested at the airport upon their return to Pakistan.
Hopefully, the legal and prompt actions and verdicts about these mega corruption cases would serve as the first step for the Accountability Courts to move against other similar felons whose number should be running in hundreds if not in thousands. If the inquiry and punishment stop at the Nawaz Sharif Family and Asif Ali Zardari and his sister, then an observer or a layman would have the genuine impression that it was a witch-hunt against these families for political or personal reasons. It could be a decision that might enormously benefit the rival political contenders in the general elections to be held on July 25 instant.
Third in the row could be Imran Khan. It may be imagined that the PTI (Pakistan Tehrik- e- Insaf) chief Imran Khan may also be interrogated either by FIA or NAB to Justify as to how he made a huge property in Bani-Gala near Islamabad the capitol of Pakistan. According to the press reports, Khan owns a 300 kanal mansion in Bani Gala, Islamabad worth ₨750 million (US$7.1 million). He has a house in Zaman Park, Lahore worth ₨29 million (US$270,000). Khan has also been an investor, investing more than ₨. 40 million (US$380,000) in various businesses. He owns furniture of ₨0.6 million (US$5,700) and four goats of ₨0.2 million (US$1,900). However, he has no vehicle registered in his name.
It is interesting to observe that the three mainstream parties are contesting and competing in the general lections scheduled for July 25 this year which means hence in two weeks’ time.
If Imran Khan is left without a Suo Moto action either by NAB and the Supreme Court under the inimitable and bold chief justice Mian Saqib Nisar, then there can be strong chances that he might fair very well in the elections and could be able to form the government at the center. The other possibility is that the nominees, (whosever they might be) of both PPP and PMNL may have tough contest from the PTI. The public meeting in Abbottabad addressed by Imran Khan was huge and unprecedented by virtue of its decorum and presence of the audience.
One may imagine that the arrest and legal action against the heads of both the leading parties namely Nawaz Sharif and Asif Ali Zardari, as a timely ploy to deter these leaders from being re-elected and assume the presidency of their respective parties as well becoming the prime minister of Pakistan.  

The judges of NAB (National Accountability Bureau) are human beings and not mistake-free angels. While handing out verdicts they can be swayed by their likes and dislikes, choice for the favorites and rejection of the non-favorites This kind of attitude has been profusely demonstrated in sentencing Mian Nawaz Sharif, his daughter and son-in-law captain to a prolonged jail terms which in his case is 11 years, his daughter 7 years and his son in law captain (Retd) Muhammad Safdar for one year. Besides Nawaz Sharif has been fined 8 million pounds and his daughter 2 million pounds.  
The general impression of the observers and the politicians from other political parties is that this accountability action might be beneficial to PMLN to win more votes and thus assail in power arena once again. These views were expressed by no less political stalwarts as Asif Ali Zardari and PTI chief Imran Khan.
It is being speculated( right or wrong) in a section of the press that Mian Saqib Nisar the Chief Justice of Pakistan, in alliance with Pakistan's military establishment, gave stern verdicts against Pakistan Muslim League (N), as well as Nawaz Sharif and his government which was ousted in July 2017.
Nawaz Sharif remained the prime minister three times. The last term was from June5, 2013 to July28, 2017.He relinquished his post after his disqualification in Panama Papers’ case decision in July 2017. He was succeeded by one of his party members Shahid Khaqan Abbasi on 1 August 2017 who served as his successor until 31 May 2018. The caretaker prime minister is Nasirul Mulk( independent) who will hold the office till an elected prime minister replaces him

IS NAWAZ SHARIF THE ONLY CORRUPT LEADER IN PAKSTAN?

By Saeed Qureshi
Of late, the Supreme Court of Pakistan has directed the Interior Ministry to place names of Asif Ali Zardari, his sister Faryal Talpur, other seven account holders and 13 beneficiaries on the Exit Control List. The charges against them are that they all are involved in transferring Rs35 billions to 29 fake bank accounts.  
The verdict with dire sentences with regard to the mega financial corruption cases instituted by NAB against the president of the political party PMNL as well as the former prime minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif, his daughter and son-in-law Captain Muhammad Safdar have alredy been announced.
The lone judges of Accountability Court-I Muhammad Bashir, under directive from supreme court, awarded 11-years rigorous imprisonment to Nawaz with £8 million fine. His daughter Maryam Nawaz has been awarded eight-year imprisonment with £2 million fine. Nawaz Sharif’s son-in-law Captain (Retd) Muhammad Safdar was handed down two-year rigorous imprisonment.
All these rigorous jail terms have been awarded to them on manipulation of funds and stacking those overseas. The case is known “Avenfield Apartments Corruption Reference” and has been lingering on for quite some time. However, Nawaz Sharif, Maryam Nawaz and Captain Safdar have the legal option to file their appeals against this judgment in the high court. They have decided to challenge the Avenfield verdict against them in the Islamabad High Court on Monday.
The Court also disqualified all the three accused from holding any public office for 10 years or availing themselves of bank loans. Declaring their two sons Hussain Nawaz and Hassan Nawaz, absconders the judge declared issuance of Non-bailable perpetual warrants for their arrest. Former prime minister Nawaz Sharif and his daughter Maryam Nawaz who are in London would be arrested at the airport upon their return to Pakistan.
Hopefully, the legal and prompt actions and verdicts about these mega corruption cases would serve as the first step for the Accountability Courts to move against other similar felons whose number should be running in hundreds if not in thousands. If the inquiry and punishment stop at the Nawaz Sharif Family and Asif Ali Zardari and his sister, then an observer or a layman would have the genuine impression that it was a witch-hunt against these families for political or personal reasons. It could be a decision that might enormously benefit the rival political contenders in the general elections to be held on July 25 instant.
Third in the row could be Imran Khan. It may be imagined that the PTI (Pakistan Tehrik- e- Insaf) chief Imran Khan may also be interrogated either by FIA or NAB to Justify as to how he made a huge property in Bani-Gala near Islamabad the capitol of Pakistan. According to the press reports, Khan owns a 300 kanal mansion in Bani Gala, Islamabad worth ₨750 million (US$7.1 million). He has a house in Zaman Park, Lahore worth ₨29 million (US$270,000). Khan has also been an investor, investing more than ₨. 40 million (US$380,000) in various businesses. He owns furniture of ₨0.6 million (US$5,700) and four goats of ₨0.2 million (US$1,900). However, he has no vehicle registered in his name.
It is interesting to observe that the three mainstream parties are contesting and competing in the general lections scheduled for July 25 this year which means hence in two weeks’ time.
If Imran Khan is left without a Suo Moto action either by NAB and the Supreme Court under the inimitable and bold chief justice Mian Saqib Nisar, then there can be strong chances that he might fair very well in the elections and could be able to form the government at the center. The other possibility is that the nominees, (whosoever they might be) of both PPP and PMNL may have tough contest from the PTI. The public meeting in Abbottabad addressed by Imran Khan was huge and unprecedented by virtue of its decorum and presence of the audience.
One may imagine that the arrest and legal action against the heads of both the leading parties namely Nawaz Sharif and Asif Ali Zardari, as a timely ploy to deter these leaders from being re-elected and assume the presidency of their respective parties as well becoming the prime minister of Pakistan.  

The judges of NAB (National Accountability Bureau) are human beings and not mistake-free angels. While handing out verdicts they can be swayed by their likes and dislikes, choice for the favorites and rejection of the non-favorites This kind of attitude has been profusely demonstrated in sentencing Mian Nawaz Sharif, his daughter and son-in-law captain to a prolonged jail terms which in his case is 11 years, his daughter 7 years and his son in law captain (Retd) Muhammad Safdar for one year. Besides Nawaz Sharif has been fined 8 million pounds and his daughter 2 million pounds.  
The general impression of the observers and the politicians from other political parties is that this accountability action might be beneficial to PMLN to win more votes and thus assail in power arena once again. These views were expressed by no less political stalwarts as Asif Ali Zardari and PTI chief Imran Khan.
It is being speculated( right or wrong) in a section of the press that Mian Saqib Nisar the Chief Justice of Pakistan, in alliance with Pakistan's military establishment, gave stern verdicts against Pakistan Muslim League (N), as well as Nawaz Sharif and his government which was ousted in July 2017.
Nawaz Sharif remained the prime minister three times. The last term was from June5, 2013 to July28, 2017.He relinquished his post after his disqualification in Panama Papers’ case decision in July 2017. He was succeeded by one of his party members Shahid Khaqan Abbasi on 1 August 2017 who served as his successor until 31 May 2018. The caretaker prime minister is Nasirul Mulk( independent) who will hold the office till an elected prime minister replaces him

What About Confederation Among India, Pakistan and Bangladesh!


July 3, 2018

By Saeed Qureshi

“A confederation is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states. The member states of a confederation retain their sovereignty, they have an implicit right of secession. Some of the well-known and firmly successfully functioning federations around the world are Belgium, Canada, Union, America, Serbia and  Switzerland.”

The racial and religious discords between Hindus and Muslims as well as historical perspective, were the predominant reasons for creation of India and Pakistan. Population-wise, the Hindus are 74 per cent followed by Muslims whose percentage is 15 per cent. During the past fourteen hundred years, the Muslims conquerors from the Arab peninsula and the Central Asian states had been assailing, conquering and ruling the territories in India.

The first prominent conquest of Sindh and the remaining territories up to Multan in the Indian sub-continent was by a Muslim Omayyad general Muhammad Bin Qasim in 710-711 AD. His victories became a prelude to the later Islamic military onslaughts and occupation of territories for several centuries. One of the Muslim conquerors Mahmood Ghanavi, reportedly, launched seventeen military forays mostly on the coastal territories of India including the Somnath Temple. He conquered Lahore city in 1015 AD. Each time, after plunder, he went back to his seat of power Ghazni in Afghanistan and never thought of becoming a local ruler or the monarch of the captured territories. He however appointed governors in the conquered territories.

Until 1160 AD, the Ghaznavid Empire was spread from central Afghanistan east to the Punjab, later another Afghan Muslim ruler and army general Shahabuddin Ghori conquered all the Ghazni occupied territories. From Shahabuddin Ghori onwards a series of conquerors from the North followed and established their islamic dynasties one after another by defeating their Islamic predecessors and local non-Muslim potentates. The last was the Mughal empire established by Zahiruddin Babar which lasted until 1857 when Britain took over India by deposing the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar in 1857. He was exiled to Rangoon (Burma) along with his family. The British colonial rule in India began in 1793 and ended in 1947. At midnight on 14–15 August 1947, the two successor self-governing states of Pakistan and India came into being.

The Islamic dispensations promoted Islam in every possible manner: be it building mosques or preaching Islam either by peaceful or other means. The local Hindu, Buddhists and other religious populations were the pristine natives and believers in polytheism and worshippers of idols, statues and animals. They had an entirely different cultural, religious and historical background.

The advent of Muslims in ancient India led to the faith-based collusion between local faiths and that of Islam. One may imagine the sense of alienation and deprivation by the Hindus and other non-Islamic minorities under the control of an alien nation, culture and religion that continued for centuries. But this is how the human history had been all along and in all the societies.

Under the burgeoning pressure of liberation movement led by both the Muslims’ political party All India Muslim League” and “The Indian National Congress” party for the Hindus, the British monarchy decided to leave India. Yet the most fundamental dilemma before them was as to whom to transfer power. The Muslims were the nation from whom the British took over power. The Indian Hindu majority population would not want to live under a latter-day Islamic governance.

The Muslims had the same perception of alienation under the Hindu majority rule, all the more when they have been ruling the Indian Subcontinent for 12 centuries either fully or partially. Both the communities viz. Hindus and Muslims started colliding in their claims to be the successor to the British rule in the India. The Hindus would not want India to be divided nor were ready to accept the Muslims as taking over India as rulers.

The bitter and unflinching conflict of claim over power led to the division of India according to the size of the population of both the communities. Thus, in August 1947, the British India was partitioned into two parts by the outgoing British government under then then viceroy Lord Mount Batten. Thus, two states viz, Bharat for the Hindus and Pakistan for the Muslims emerged. This was indeed a myopic resolution as perceived in the light of the perpetual military conflicts and confrontations that happened in later times between India and Pakistan and which still continue.

The partition led to a massive upheaval, displacement and migration of the population across the unguarded borders which meant the Muslims migrating to Pakistan and the Hindus from the Pakistan’s territories to India.  Millions of migrating people and families perished on the way because of the bloodshed carried out on both the sides by mostly the religiously hate-filled bands of looters, as well as other assailants and marauders.

Unfortunately, since 1947 both the successor states of British India have seldom been entirely friendly or good neighbors. There have been some undecided areas called “disputed territories”, whose placement or alliance either with India or Pakistan couldn’t be decided one way or the other during the time pf partition. However, their fate was to be decided later by the plebiscite or through the vote of the people of those territories as enshrined in the partition plan. Their choice was whether they wanted to integrate with India or Pakistan.

One of such territorial disputes is about the valley of Kashmir. However. In case of Kashmir, India always opposed the plebiscite option under the apprehension that the majority Muslim population of Kashmir would prefer to join with Pakistan than India.  In the meantime, the settlement of Kashmir dispute is still in a state of limbo. That one issue, not only entailed several armed conflicts between India and Pakistan, but also adversely affected their economies which were partly diverted from peoples’ welfare to the production and procurement of weapons including the nuclear arsenal.

During the last 70 years, besides several standing armed conflicts, bloody clashes and other armed engagements, India and Pakistan have fought four major wars in 1947,1965, 1971 and 1999. We all know how devastating these military incursions have been for both the neighbors for a durable peace and unhindered economic progress in the Indian subcontinent.

The simple question ignored by both the Muslim and Hindu leadership should have been that if Hindus and other religious non-Islamic denominations lived under the Islamic rule for a pretty long period of time, why couldn’t they live together after the exit of the Britain from the Indian Subcontinent. As such that division should be taken as an historic blunder.

Suppose one of the countries dominates and defeats the others by ascendancy of nuclear power, would that mean that the victor would, thereafter, rule peacefully. Wouldn’t it generate perennial jingoistic and military conflict between India and Pakistan. Let us keep in mind that in an atomic war no side would be victor. All would be the losers.

However, the most damaging aspect is the intention, mentality and competition for acquiring the capability for mutual destruction and annihilation. God forbid if both the countries use atomic weapons then It could be the first atomic war after the dropping of two bombs by USA on two cities of Japan Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) and Nagasaki (August 9, 1945) during the world war-II. In those atomic bombings, millions of people perished or maimed.  Even after 71 years of those devastating nuclear attacks, the normal life or livable environment couldn’t be entirely revived.  

India, Pakistan and Bangladesh should not suffer from false egos but understand that the people are most important for all the three regional countries. Would Hinduism or Islam prevail after the holocaust of wars? No way. On the contrary the surviving population in the Subcontinent would suffer for centuries. This present technology is not that of 50s. It is hundred times more destructive than what it was several decades ago.

The historic folly of partition can be rectified if all the three states of the Indian Subcontinent, namely India, Pakistan and Bangladesh join hands in a confederal setup and move along with peace, dignity and togetherness for a glorious future of their people. That milestone would ensure economic and social stability for their people suffering enormously for all these decades due to the bitterness between the two countries of India and Pakistan. If Saudi Arabia and India per say, are more cordial friendly states despite deep religious cleavage, why cannot the Islamic states of Bangladesh and Pakistan on one side and Republic of India on the other live peacefully with each other.

Let us admit that partition of India was demanded by the Muslims and not by the Hindus. Now It should be the Muslims of the Indian Subcontinent who should take initiatives in calling for a confederation.

The people of Bangladesh had a genuine reason and grounds to separate because the majority party Awami League from East Pakistan was not given the right to form the government after her victory in the first General elections held in Pakistan on 7 December 1970. Instead, they were victimized and brutalized by a massive military onslaught and operation causing innumerable deaths widespread destruction and ruination on both the side. The People of former East Pakistan launched a civil war under Awami league party headed by Mujiburehman and won that war with the help of India.

Thus, a separate country Bangladesh came into being. That backlog of stigma, tragedy and humiliation for the then west Pakistan and its armed forces and even the West Pakistan’s political parties can be allayed through a confederation. Yet the attainment of that goal depends upon the consent of the people of Bangladesh as well as India.

Within a confederation, the people would be able to visit all places that are spiritually and by faith sacred and precious to all the religions, faiths and denominations. The disputed territories would be no more disputed to be safeguarded and fought by heavy military contingents. The people of Kashmir and other disputed areas, struggling for territories, identities and national rights would become part of a government that would be their own. Thus, they would be able to enter power corridors through public votes from their respective areas of representations. On top of it, the tension and animosity that is rampant and persistent at the cost of national progress, peace and prosperity would vanish. Is that a bad bargain.?

The religious fanaticism would give way to better understanding and respect and faith-based co-existence for all beliefs. Anyway, the people are more important as for peace and the mutually honorable cohabitation is concerned. The Muslims would go to their mosques and the Hindus to their temples and the other denominations to their places of worship.

Thus, the vested and intriguing role of the leading world powers to blackmail and pit one developing country against another for selling weapons and military hardware, could be halted. That would in turn be helpful in eliminating poverty and backwardness in all the three members of confederation.

Let the leadership from the three regional countries join hands, sit together, click the button and take a giant step for a grandiose and historic decision of entering into confederal set up. If Hindus, Muslims and other religious minorities have been living together for ages, then they can still live in a confederation which would safeguard their lives, as well as quality of life and ensure peace in the Subcontinent. 



  



   




Wednesday, June 27, 2018

The Concept of God

June 27, 2018
Religion, basically, is man’s conceptual curiosity or ideological urge to justify the existence of God or a super power and to express man’s allegiance to that power via religion or other forms of faith. The existence of our material world and beyond that the universe with blue sky, stars, moon, sun, clouds, celestial bodies and our planet earth with trees, days and nights, rivers, valleys, mountains, light, darkness, seasons, flowers, animals, man himself and other manifestations of nature were always at the root of man’s zeal and amazement to find about the creator and founder of this spectacularly grand show. Man is bound by the cause and effect doctrine and also by the notion of a creator and the creation.

Naturally there is someone who must have created the universe as it cannot, on its own, come into being. Unless the theory of random mutation is conclusively proven the creation of entire existence and creation must be attributed to a force, a creator, a system or someone who conceived and originated it. No matter whatever the explanations the scientists may offer, the fact remains that there was perfect wisdom and absolute intelligence behind all the creations visible or hidden. Man has thus far scratched the surface and the more he investigates and researches, the more he finds this universe complex, vast and the embodiment of immutable principles.

The existence of God is determined by the creation which means the nature, the universe and all the existence. It has been man’s passion to understand the mysteries of the creation and the universe. Naturally the question arises what is this all about? How it came into being and who created all this awesome system or systems? We exist and that is a fact, but why and how we exist is a very intriguing yet pertinent question. Man, himself has tried to furnish the answers to these questions.

The human logic suggests that since there must be a creator of a creation, so there must be a maker of what we see around and what exists. The universe is there for billions of years and it is perfectly functioning. The sun alone is shining and transmitting light and energy for about 5 billion years or more. How can this system continue for so long and who is sustaining this mind-boggling panorama where the time and space are limitless? The space is limitless and is constantly expanding. The time has no beginning and no end. Neither space nor time can be seen nor measured yet they exist.

Nevertheless, the fact remains that except deriving conclusions and inferences from the creation as well as through the faith, the existence of God remains a perennial mystery and an unresolved puzzle. As the legend goes, Prophet Abraham the father of the three main religions viz Judaism, Islam and Christianity first marveled at the magnificence of sun, moon and stars and thought that these were the powers that created everything.

After viewing that they appear, disappear and reappear on a set course, he thought that there must be someone else who must have created these celestial bodies and fixed them on their courses. Thus, he came to the conclusion that an eternal and omnipotent yet invisible power was there that was responsible for creating everything.

In pagan beliefs every inexplicable phenomenon was attributed to a God and thus love, hatred, food, famine, rain and draught, life and death, victory and defeat, pain and pleasure and similar other traits and phenomena were all attributed to different gods. So, man needed to be thankful to these powers and express obedience and gratitude to them by seeing them before him.

Thus, the idols, images or statues came into being. But such people who thought God was invisible and cannot be divided and personified in an idol stressed and preached that God was beyond human comprehension and senses; that he was alone and possessed all the powers that one can conceive of.

The concept or belief in a supreme power is prevalent in all the religions. Even in Buddhism that apparently negates the existence of God, somehow the belief in a human soul that departs at the time of death exists. Buddha taught mankind to find peace from within, which means man himself was the redeemer of his own sufferings and that no external force or individual could help him in addressing or getting rid of his woes and torment. Yet practically Buddha himself became a God for his followers who have been worshipping his images to this day. Buddhist concept of supreme power starts from the man and ends unto man, albeit with a soul that remains active till it attains Nirvana or the peaceful end and salvation.

Animism or the belief that every living being has a soul that departs at the time of death but still remains around although the physical body perishes has been practiced by man from the time immemorial. According to this belief the soul lives in secluded places and can cast good or bad influences on the living humans. Therefore, the primitive people who met their dead kith in dream or illusions attributed supernatural powers to them and started worshipping them.

But then there was a step forward. Instead of individual souls the people started believing that an all-encompassing soul prevailed and was present in every existing thing. This served as a source of great awe and fear and was another reason or vehicle for the mankind to believe in a super power in the form of a soul that would go back to its origin at the time of death.

In Taoism, mostly practiced in the Far East especially in China and Japan, the followers believe in a self-propelling system in that humans have very little to do. They believe in a state of permanent flux between the two extremes and a spirit or Tao that never dies. It means a spirit and divinity that is eternal. Taoism in subsequent times degenerated into extreme superstition and complex rituals.

The followers of Shintoism mostly practiced in Japan, believe in spirits consisting of nature and of died ancestors floating in the space and inhabiting mountains, valleys and elsewhere in the universe. Shintoism is truly a religion of rites that the Japanese people observe daily as part of their culture and social milieu.

Confucianism basically exhorts self-discipline, right behavior, peace and harmony that come by practicing the concepts of Li and Jen. But Li essentially connotes and symbolizes a supreme deity or power.

Notwithstanding what prophets said about the nature of God, the undeniable fact remains that God has never been understood. We can infer that a supreme being is there who created and controls this universe or whatever he created. The absolute order and scientific principles that govern this whole system of existence speak for the fact that it cannot come into being on its own.

God may not be bothered by the negation or denial of his existence by the people because unlike what the human beings believe God is not swayed or motivated by emotions. As such God is not governing the universe on the basis of sentiments or likes or dislikes or reward or revenge. The entire philosophy or doctrines of the religions are mostly based on God’s pleasure or displeasure.

But what happens is that when man cannot see or sensually perceive God, he tries to personify him in different models and shapes. Starting from the idols to deities all are manifestations of God in physical form. But while personifying God, man is in the habit of attributing absolute powers and abilities to him. In the ancient times, man would worship and kneel before idols to ensure a physical presence of a super power before him.

The monotheist nature of God is practiced and postulated in Judaism and Islam alone. Jesus Christ himself preached monotheism but it was under the Greek influence, pedaled by St Paul that in subsequent times Jesus himself and the Holy Spirit were made part of a divine force.

It means that God was split into three parts. Still no one knows whether God was one undivided being or there were several gods ruling the universe as there has never been a direct link between God or gods on one hand and the human beings on the other.

All the images or the idols that man makes to personify God in the physical forms are from this world because man has no knowledge of any other form. These forms are either human figures or animals. The ancient Egyptians used to worship jackals, the owls, the serpents and several other animals and birds. In Hinduism several animals including ape and cow are treated holy and revered and worshipped as deities.

All these physical manifestations of a super beings are man’s anxiety and psychological urge to see God in some visible from. To limit God with limitless powers into a human shaped or animal designed statue or idol is in fact degrading or demonizing God. It was therefore felt by some founders of the religions primarily Abrahamic to shun idolatry and profess and view God as one and an invisible force that cannot be seen by the human eye as seeing God would confine him to a space and God is not confined to or conditioned by time or space.

Man being an intelligent and conscientious being can have the perception of God and therefore believes in him in one form or another. But it cannot be verified if other creatures that have mind and are living also perceive God. Or else God alone wants only the human beings to have faith in him and then accept other dogmas relating to life after death or paradise and hell and existence of angels and spirits. It means that if faith alone is related and confined to the human beings then God wants humans only to belief in the creator and the creation.

The rest of all existence is above and immune from the cycle of births and rebirths. One can only speculate that human race has devised some system for his own distinctive recognition from the animals and from all those animated existences that have biological mechanism of being born from the male and females. If we accept that these are only the human beings who are supposed to have the awareness of God and the creation of universe then all other manifestations or forms of existence are merely meant for display or some of them meant only to serve and then disappear.

For animals and other creatures, life is simple and limited because they have no perception, urge, lust or craving for living in houses and eating delicious foods and enjoy other comforts of life. They cannot be religious and pray and live and have social life like humans. For them life in the hereafter has no meaning because it is only the human beings who will be resurrected and not the animals.

But keeping in view the development and the corresponding changes in the biological and material constitutions of living creation including the humans one can speculate that a stage might arrive when man becomes an animal or is reduced in size and intelligence and vice versa the animals take the place of humans as for as living and possessing intelligence was concerned. In that case then those developed species would be expected to have messengers, social systems and beliefs in social codes and religions.

By that time the present generation of humans should be living either in paradise or in hell. Or else till all the animals turn into humans or intelligent beings and live and die like humans and the process of resurrection might be deferred. It can be guessed that man is the latest phase of a development process that continued for millenniums.

There is no conclusive evidence that before this generation of mankind there were other generations in a time span of 15 billion years. But it is evident from the study and research focused on anthropology that animals of various sizes and dimensions stalked the earth for millions of years and then disappeared.

The monkey or the ape are closed to humans in the body constitution, habits and instincts barring a consciousness to live sophisticated lives like human beings. But the shape of their skull and construction of hands and gesticulations suggest that man could be like them in the distant past and ultimately was refined to develop into the present from and level of intelligence.

Similarly, it can be speculated that the present generation of apes could be the future humans and once they attain a modicum of human intelligence, they would start living a social life entirely different from the wild life they were having now. Or else since their growth and population is not multiplying they could vanish finally. Or the present generation of human may complete their span of life and finally they all die and resurrected again.

If the dogma of resurrection is taken into account then either the present generation of humans would be enlivened on the doom’s day or they would wait for the apes also to be grown into full-fledged humans, exhaust their given span of life, live a social life with religious or some kinds of beliefs and then join the earlier extinct generations to face the final judgment on the final day of this universe’s existence.

According to scriptures on the “Resurrection Day”, the world would be blown into pieces with thundering sounds and finally everything living or non-living would vanish. But one question that stirs the mind is that when the earth will be torn into pieces where the dead would remain and how in the absence of a space they would rise again. When there would be no earth or space to live even if the dead come to life where they would be gathered to receive their verdict of hell and heaven.

If with the earth, the universe also disappears then again where would this show of reward and punishment be held. There is no explicit explanation as to what space or place would be available for the great assemblage of all the humans whose number should run into trillions. The placement of hell and heavens is also not identified.

Actually, for the faithful of any religion it is sacrilegious or undesirable to go into the details or modalities of all the happenings that start from the birth to the death and the projected events after the death. In Islam it is a sin to question the elements of faith and one is ordained to accept the gospels and teaching as true and beyond questioning. This stops the believers at a level where they would leave everything to the will of God. They seldom rationalize the precepts and dogmas and interpretations of the religion about all these issues that otherwise are also beyond the comprehension of human mind.

Otherwise the fundamental question is that why a powerful God would put to trial the feeble humans with unbridled desires and keep the Satan unleashed to prey upon them. If Adam the father of humans couldn’t withstand the allurement and cunning of Satan, how come that ordinary humans can offset him.

The Satan is believed to be a physical being but no one has seen him ever since this dogma became part of the religions. But it is also believed that Satan is a personification of man’s own unbridled evil desires and ambitions that impel him to commit crimes which may be named as sins in the religious terms. At times, it so happens that sins and crimes converge but primarily crimes are the names given by the society to the harmful and illegal acts that one commits but the sins envisage also the infringement of temporal as well as divine or religious beliefs enshrined in the religious statutes of do’s and don’ts.